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托福阅读考试两大陷阱

2015-03-06 10:39:11 | 编辑: 无 | 有4110人加入 | 来自: 匿名

托福阅读难度是较量大的,各人在备考的时间要磨炼自己掌握托福阅读时间的能力,多针对托福阅读真题举行训练,总结一些使用的托福阅读质料。在训练的历程中总结一些适合自己的托福阅读技巧。下面举世托福小编为各人整理了关于考试两大陷阱的相关内容,供各人参考。

  【陷阱一:细节题考察准确定位】
  托福阅读中的细节题着实不难,但条件是定位的点要对,好比下面这个例题:
  Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.
  According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?
  A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.
  B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.
  C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.
  D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.
  这是一个典型的细节题,在该题题干中,有的考生会选择Puget Sound作为要害词回原文定位,由于它是专著名词,在文中会较量显眼。可是若是一旦选择了这个地名,势必会定位在该段的第一句话,托福细节题往往是定位在哪句就在哪句找谜底,这样的话考生是选不出准确谜底的,由于定位禁绝确。着实准确的要害词应该是white-tailed deer,这个用连字符毗连的词在文章中也是较量醒目的,按该词定位应是该段最后一句话。以是凭证它的意思应该选D项。其中A项与原句意思不符,B和C都与定位句信息无关。我们再来看另外一个否认事实细节题的例子:
  Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their structure depends on the particular history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.
  According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?
  A. They occur at the end of a succession.
  B. They last longer than any other type of community.
  C. The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change
  D. They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.
  这个题各人都市选择用climax communities去定位,但在定位历程中会泛起许多问题。首先考生要学会跳跃式定位,即凭证文章中特殊的标点符号以及最醒目的词来搜索我们真正需要的要害词。文中的particular是加了阴影的,succession是在引号内里的,都很是醒目,通过看这两个词我们会发现它们周围没有我们需要的工具;再较量突出的就是数字及破折号,在500的上方有a climax community,但它是单数,与题干要害词不完全匹配,细节题考究的是准确定位,以是我们应该选择500斜下方的Climax communities,即该段的最后一句话。否认事实细节题的出题思绪有两种:一是无中生有,即凭证定位点的内容,四个选项只有一个没有提到,这种思绪多适用于选项较量简短的问题;二是张冠李戴,即凭证定位点的内容表述,只有一个选项与之矛盾,这种思绪多顺应于选项较量长的问题。就这个例题而言,凭证定位的最后一句话,从表述上来说跟它相关的只有C和D两个选项,D项的意思与原句相符,而C项与原句矛盾,以是准确谜底是C。综上所述,做新托福阅读的细节题,最主要的一点就是要只管地去准确定位。
  【陷阱二:无偏向中隐藏偏向】
  新托福阅读考试中绝大部门问题都是对应详细段落的,这会为考生节约许多时间。可是也不扫除有少量问题的规模较量大或较量模糊,考生在寻找谜底时难免一头雾水,费时艰辛。着实这些看似没有明确定位偏向的问题都是潜在玄机的。下面我们就来看一个例子:
  Wind power has a significant cost advantage over nuclear power and has become competitive with coal-fired power plants in many places. With new technological advances and mass production, projected cost declines should make wind power one of the world’s cheapest ways to produce electricity. In the long run, electricity from large wind farms in remote areas might be used to make hydrogen gas from water during periods when there is less than peak demand for electricity. The hydrogen gas could then be fed into a storage system and used to generate electricity when additional or backup power is needed.
  Wind power is most economical in areas with steady winds. In areas where the wind dies down, backup electricity from a utility company or from an energy storage system becomes necessary. Backup power could also be provided by linking wind farms with a solar cell, with conventional or pumped-storage hydropower, or with efficient natural-gas-burning turbines. Some drawbacks to wind farms include visual pollution and noise, although these can be overcome by improving their design and locating them in isolated areas.
  Based on the information in paragraph 3 and paragraph 4, what can be inferred about the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas mentioned at the end of paragraph 1?
  A.They rely largely on coal-fired power plants.
  B.They contain remote areas where the winds rarely die down.
  C.Over 1 percent of the electricity in these states is produced by wind farms.
  D.Wind farms in these states are being expanded to meet the power needs of the United States.
  这个问题的题干预干与及到三个段落,而事实上考生基础不需要去看第一段的内容,由于谜底依据的是第三、四段的信息,但是这两个段落若是都看的话内容也不少,从应试的角度来说太费时间。准确的做法应该是从选项中挖掘一下偏向。A项里各人一样寻常都市选择有连字符的coal-fired作为要害词去定位,B项没有较量显眼的词就只能选名词短语remote areas,C项选1 percent,D项选the United States。选完要害词我们不难发现除了B项不大好定位以外,其他三个选项的要害词都很醒目。经由定位,A项应该去比对第3段的第一句话,意思显着矛盾;B项欠好找,可以暂且跳过;C项和D项的要害词在这两段都找不到,这就属于新托福阅读中推理题的错误谜底设计要领之一 ——无中生有。以是虽然我们没有去验证B项的说法是否准确,但经由扫除也只能选B了。这样的做题要领就会省时省力,且谜底也是准确的。在考试中,这种情形往往会影响考生的心情,进而影响水平的施展,但是只要我们相识了出题的套路就能把它们轻松搞定。

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